Sometimes, you need to modify or inspect Zulip data from the command line. To help with this, Zulip ships with over 100 command-line tools implemented using the Django management commands framework.
Running management commands¶
Start by logging in as the
zulip user on the Zulip server. Then run
them as follows:
cd /home/zulip/deployments/current # Start by reading the help ./manage.py <command_name> --help # Once you've determine this is the command for you, run it! ./manage.py <command_name> <args>
A full list of commands is available via
./manage.py help; you’ll
primarily want to use those in the
[zerver] section as those are the
ones specifically built for Zulip.
As a warning, some of them are designed for specific use cases and may
cause problems if run in other situations. If you’re not sure, it’s
worth reading the documentation (or the code, usually available at
zerver/management/commands/; they’re generally very simple programs).
Accessing an organization’s realm ID¶
Since Zulip supports hosting multiple organizations on a single server, many management commands require you specify which organization (“realm”) you’d like to modify, either via numerical or string ID (usually the subdomain).
You can see all the organizations on your Zulip server using
zulip@zulip:~$ /home/zulip/deployments/current/manage.py list_realms id string_id name -- --------- ---- 1 zulipinternal None 2 Zulip Community
(Note that every Zulip server has a special
containing system-internal bots like
Notification Bot; you are
unlikely to ever need to interact with that realm.)
Unless you are
hosting multiple organizations on your Zulip server,
your single Zulip organization on the root domain will have the empty
'') as its
string_id. So you can run e.g.:
zulip@zulip:~$ /home/zulip/deployments/current/manage.py show_admins -r ''
string_id will correspond to the organization’s
subdomain. E.g. on
/home/zulip/deployments/current/manage.py show_admins -r it.
If you need to query or edit data directly in the Zulip database, the best way to do this is with Django’s built-in management shell.
You can get an IPython shell with full access to code within the Zulip
manage.py shell, e.g., you can do the following to
change a user’s email address:
$ cd /home/zulip/deployments/current/ $ ./manage.py shell In : user_profile = get_user_profile_by_email("firstname.lastname@example.org") In : do_change_user_delivery_email(user_profile, "email@example.com")
Any Django tutorial can give you helpful advice on querying and formatting data from Zulip’s tables for inspection.
We recommend against directly editing objects and saving them using
object.save(). While this will save your changes to the
database, for most objects, in addition to saving the changes to the
database, one may also need to flush caches, notify the apps and open
browser windows, and record the change in Zulip’s
audit history table. For almost any data change you want to do, there
is already a function in
zerver.lib.actions.py with a name like
do_change_full_name that updates that field and notifies clients
For convenience, Zulip automatically import
zerver/lib/actions.py into every management shell; if you need to
access other functions, you’ll need to import them yourself.
Other useful manage.py commands¶
There are dozens of useful management commands under
zerver/management/commands/. We detail a few here:
./manage.py help: Lists all available management commands.
./manage.py dbshell: If you’re more comfortable with raw SQL than Python, this will open a Postgres SQL shell connected to the Zulip server’s database. Beware of changing data; editing data directly with SQL will often not behave correctly because Postgres doesn’t know to flush Zulip’s caches or notify browsers of changes.
./manage.py send_custom_email: Can be used to send an email to a set of users. The
--helpdocuments how to run it from a
manage.py shellfor use with more complex programmatically computed sets of users.
./manage.py send_password_reset_email: Sends password reset email(s) to one or more users.
./manage.py change_user_email: Change a user’s email address.
./manage.py knight: Can toggle whether a user is an administrator (easier done via the UI) or create an API super user bot (with
--permission=api_super_user), which are needed for some content mirroring integrations.
./manage.py export_single_userdoes a limited version of the main export tools containing just the messages accessible by a single user.
All of our management commands have internal documentation available
manage.py command_name --help.