Zulip uses the standard Django system for doing schema migrations. There is some example usage in the new feature tutorial.
This page documents some important issues related to writing schema migrations.
Large tables: For large tables like Message and UserMessage, you want to take precautions when adding columns to the table, performing data backfills, or building indexes. We have a
zerver/lib/migrate.pylibrary to help with adding columns and backfilling data. For building indexes on these tables, we should do this using SQL with postgres’s CONCURRENTLY keyword.
Numbering conflicts across branches: If you’ve done your schema change in a branch, and meanwhile another schema change has taken place, Django will now have two migrations with the same number. To fix this, you need to renumber your migration(s), fix up the “dependencies” entries in your migration(s), and rewrite your git history as needed. There is a tutorial here that walks you though that process.
Atomicity. By default, each Django migration is run atomically inside a transaction. This can be problematic if one wants to do something in a migration that touches a lot of data and would best be done in batches of e.g. 1000 objects (e.g. a
UserMessagetable change). There is a new Django feature added in Django 1.10 that makes it possible to add
atomic=Falseat the top of a
Migrationclass and thus not have the entire migration in a transaction. This should make it possible to use the batch update tools in
zerver/lib/migrate.py(originally written to work with South) for doing larger database migrations.
Making large migrations work. Major migrations should have a few properties:
Unit tests. You’ll want to carefully test these, so you might as well write some unit tests to verify the migration works correctly, rather than doing everything by hand. This often saves a lot of time in re-testing the migration process as we make adjustments to the plan.
Run in batches. Updating more than 1K-10K rows (depending on type) in a single transaction can lock up a database. It’s best to do lots of small batches, potentially with a brief sleep in between, so that we don’t block other operations from finishing.
Rerunnability/idempotency. Good migrations are ones where if operational concerns (e.g. it taking down the Zulip server for users) interfere with it finishing, it’s easy to restart the migration without doing a bunch of hand investigation. Ideally, the migration can even continue where it left off, without needing to redo work.
Multi-step migrations. For really big migrations, one wants to split the transition into into several commits that are each individually correct, and can each be deployed independently:
- First, do a migration to add the new column to the Message table and start writing to that column (but don’t use it for anything)
- Second, do a migration to copy values from the old column to the new column, to ensure that the two data stores agree.
- Third, a commit that stops writing to the old field.
- Any cleanup work, e.g. if the old field were a column, we’d do a migration to remove it entirely here.
This multi-step process is how most migrations on large database tables are done in large-scale systems, since it ensures that the system can continue running happily during the migration.